A solution to our public health crisis
Introduction - Page 3
1. HM Government. Department of Health. Working Together For a Stronger NHS: Leaflet. 6 April 2011.
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3. Esselstyn CB Jr. Is the present therapy for coronary artery disease the radical mastectomy of the twenty-first century? Am J Cardiol. 2010 Sep 15;106(6):902-4. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20816134
4. Wang J, Luben R, Khaw KT, Bingham S, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG. Dietary Energy Density Predicts the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes - The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Study. Diabetes Care November 2008 vol. 31 no. 11 2120-2125 care.diabetesjournals.org/content/31/11/2120.full
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6. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, McPherson K, Thomas S, Mardell J, Parry V. Foresight. Tackling obesities: future choices. Project report. Obesity Reviews Volume 8, Issue Supplement s1, pages vi–ix, March 2007. www.bis.gov.uk/foresight/our-work/projects/published-projects/tackling-obesities
Facts on Chronic Disease - Page 4
1. Diabetes UK. Diabetes in the UK 2010: Key statistics on diabetes. http://www.diabetes.org.uk/Professionals/Publications-reports-and-resources/Reports-statistics-and-case-studies/Reports/Diabetes-in-the-UK-2010/
2. National Health Service. Quality and Outcomes Framework Prevalence Data Tables.
Northern Ireland: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/diabetes_indicators_by_board3.pdf
3. Department of Health (2006). Turning the corner: Improving diabetes care. www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_4136141
4. NHS Confederation. Key statistics on the NHS. http://www.nhsconfed.org/OurWork/political-engagement/Pages/NHS-statistics.aspx
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6. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
7. Ibid. 3, P. 13
8. Kohner et al (1996) Report of the Visual Handicap Group, Diabetic Medicine, 13, (Suppl. 4.) S13-S26 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8894453
9. Arun CS, Ngugi N, Lovelock L et al (2003). Effectiveness of screening and preventing blindness due to diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Medicine 20 (3); 186–190 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12675661
10. Dalla Paola L et al. Diabetes and Orthopaedic Surgery. Adv Orthop 2010;2(3):89–99. http://www.remedicajournals.com/Advances-in-Orthopaedics/BrowseIssues/Volume-2-Issue-3/Article-Diabetes-and-Orthopaedic-Surgery
11. Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Sarwar N et al. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010 Jun 26;375(9733):2215-22
12. Ibid. 6
13. Vigneri P et al. Diabetes and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer December 1, 2009 16 1103-1123. doi: 10.1677/ERC-09-0087. http://erc.endocrinology-journals.org/content/16/4/1103.full.pdf+html
14. Giovannucci E et al. Diabetes and Cancer: A consensus report. Diabetes Care 33:1674–1685, 2010. doi: 10.2337/dc10-0666. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/7/1674.full.pdf+html
15. Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97(22):1679 –1687. doi: 10.1093/jnci/dji375 http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/97/22/1679.full.pdf+html
16. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837-53. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07019-6 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(98)07019-6/fulltext
17. OECD (2010), Health at a Glance: Europe 2010, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/health_glance-2010-en http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/health-at-a-glance-europe-2010_health_glance-2010-en;jsessionid=97mmen2q2f5hr.delta
18. Morgan E. and Dent M. The economic burden of obesity. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory, 2010. http://www.noo.org.uk/uploads/doc/vid_8575_Burdenofobesity151110MG.pdf
19. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, et al. Tackling obesities: future choices – project report (2nd Ed). London: Foresight Programme of the Government Office for Science, 2007. http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/bispartners/foresight/docs/obesity/17.pdf
20. The NHS Information Centre, Lifestyles Statistics. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2010. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/statistics-and-data-collections/health-and-lifestyles/obesity/statistics-on-obesity-physical-activity-and-diet-england-2010
21. HSE. Obesity among children under 11. London: Department of Health; 2005. http://www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/PublicationsStatisticsArticle/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4109245&chk=WB/AR1
22. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing 14: Childhood overweight and obesity (2010) http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/downloads/14_briefing_web(5).pdf
23. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, McPherson K, Thomas S, Mardell J, Parry V. Foresight. Tackling obesities: future choices. Project report. Obesity Reviews Volume 8, Issue Supplement s1, pages vi–ix, March 2007. http://www.bis.gov.uk/foresight/our-work/projects/published-projects/tackling-obesities
24. Scarborough P, Bhatnagar P, Wickramsinghe K, Smolina A, Mitchell C, Rayner M (2010). Coronary heart disease statistics 2010, British Heart Foundation: London. http://www.bhf.org.uk/plugins/PublicationsSearchResults/DownloadFile.aspx?docid=770b4784-0a4e-4f8b-95ed-081f631f2fbd&version=-1&title=Coronary+Heart+Disease+2010%3A+Contents&resource=HS2010C
25. Boyle, P., Autier, P., Bartelink, H. (2003) European Code Against Cancer and scientific justification: third version (2003). Ann Oncol (2003) 14 (7): 973-1005. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdg305 http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org/content/14/7/973.full
26. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010) Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease at the Population Level. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/PH25
27. SIGN Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a national clinical guideline. (2007) http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign97.pdf
Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Diabetes - Joel Fuhrman MD - Pages 5-6
1. Khaodhiar, L., S. Cummings, and C.M. Apovian, Treating diabetes and prediabetes by focusing on obesity management. Current diabetes reports, 2009. 9(5): p. 348-54.
2. Riserus, U., W.C. Willett, and F.B. Hu, Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Prog. Lipid Res., 2009. 48(1): p. 44-51.
3. Hermansen, K. and L.S. Mortensen, Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience, 2007. 30(12): p. 1127-42.
4. Bowker, S.L., S.R. Majumdar, P. Veugelers, et al., Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin: Response to Farooki and Schneider. Diabetes Care, 2006. 29(8): p. 1990-1.
5. Harish, K., M. Dharmalingam, and M. Himanshu, Study Protocol: insulin and its role in cancer. BMC endocrine disorders, 2007. 7: p. 10.
6. Tzoulaki, I., M. Molokhia, V. Curcin, et al., Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database. BMJ, 2009. 339: p. b4731.
7. Gerstein, H.C., M.E. Miller, R.P. Byington, et al., Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The New England journal of medicine, 2008. 358(24): p. 2545-59.
8. Carter, P., L.J. Gray, J. Troughton, et al., Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2010. 341: p. c4229.
9. Villegas, R., Y.T. Gao, G. Yang, et al., Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008. 87(1): p. 162-7.
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12. Jenkins, D.J., C.W. Kendall, A. Marchie, et al., Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003. 78(3 Suppl): p. 610S-616S.
13. Nicholson, A.S., M. Sklar, N.D. Barnard, et al., Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Prev. Med., 1999. 29(2): p. 87-91.
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15. Jenkins, D.J., C.W. Kendall, D.G. Popovich, et al., Effect of a very-high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut diet on serum lipids and colonic function. Metabolism., 2001. 50(4): p. 494-503.
Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Coronary Disease – Caldwell B Esselstyn MD - Pages 7-9
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Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Cancer – Neal Barnard MD - Pages 10-12
1. From "The Cancer Survivor’s Guide: Foods that Help You Fight Back", 2008, Neal D. Barnard, Jennifer K. Reilly, pg viii.
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Dos Santos Silva I, Mangtani P, McCormack V, Bhakta D, Sevak L, McMichael AJ. Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England. Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):238-44.
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2. Ibid., p 1.
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3. Fradet Y, Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R. Dietary fat and prostate cancer progression and survival. Eur Urol. 1999;388:91.
4. Ibid. 1, p. 56
Fradet Y, Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R. Dietary fat and prostate cancer progression and survival. Eur Urol. 1999;388:91.
Carter JP, Saxe GP, Newbold V, Peres CE, Campeau RJ, Bernal-Green L. Hypothesis: dietary management may improve survival from nutritionally linked cancers based on analysis of representative cases. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:209-226.
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5. Ibid. 1, p. 1-2
Wu AH, Pike MC, Stram DO. Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):529-34.
Miller K. Estrogen and DNA damage: the silent source of breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:100-102.
Yager JD, Davidson NE. Estrogen Carcinogenesis in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:270-282
6. Miller K. Oestrogen and DNA damage: the silent source of breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:100-102
7. Prentice R, Thompson D, Clifford C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, Byar D. Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentration in healthy postmenopausal women. The Women’s Health Trial Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:129-134
8. Heber D, Ashley JM, Leaf DA, Barnard RJ. Reduction of serum estradiol in postmenopausal women given free access to low-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Nutrition. 1991;7:137-139.
9. Ibid. 1, p 2
Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, Poisson R, Bowman D, Couture J, Dimitrov NV, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):479-84.
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12. Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mortality among German vegetarians. Int J Epidemiol. 1993;22:228-236.
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15. Ibid. 1, p. 30
Bendich A. Carotenoids and the immune response. J Nut. 1989;119:112-115.
Watson RR, Prabhala RH, Plezia PM, Alberts DS. Effect of beta-carotene on lymphocyte subpopulations in elderly humans: evidence for a dose-response relationship. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:90-94.
16. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:391-398.
Rao AV, Agarwal S. Role of Antioxidant Lycopene in Cancer and Heart Disease. J Am Coll Nutr October 2000 vol. 19 no. 5 563-569
17. Ibid. (16)
18. Ibid. (16)
19. Packer, L. Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems, Am J Clin Nutr April 1991 vol. 53 no. 4 1050S-1055S.
Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition Volume 18, Issue 10, Pages 872-879 (October 2002)
Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. The relevance of selenium to immunity, cancer, and infectious/inflammatory diseases. Can J Diet Prac Res. 2005;66:98-102.
20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid (mg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content. www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/SR23/nutrlist/sr23w401.pdf
21. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:442-447.
22. Houghton AN. Cancer antigens: immune recognition of self and altered self. J Exp Med. 1994 Jul 1;180(1):1-4. jem.rupress.org/content/180/1/1.full.pdf
23. Malter M, Schriever G, Eilber U. Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men. Nutr Cancer. 1989;12:271-278.
24. Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K, Nakagama H, Nagao M. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Sci. 2004 Apr;95(4):290-9. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15072585
25. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Fiber, total dietary (g) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/SR23/nutrlist/sr23w291.pdf
Williams, CN. High Fibre Diet, The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol 13, No 6, July/August 1999. www.cdhf.ca/pdfs/CDHF_HighFibreDiet.pdf
26. Murillo G, Mehta RG. Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer. 2001;41:17-28.
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27. Ibid. 1, p. 50
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28. Ibid. 1, pp. 64, 78
Zhao X, Carey EE, Wang, W, Rajashekar, C.B. Does organic production enhance phytochemical content of fruit and vegetables? Current knowledge and prospects for research. HortTechnology 16 (3) 449–456 www.fstadirect.com/GetRecord.aspx?AN=2006-12-Ja4600
The Environmental Working Group. Shoppers guide to pesticides in produce. Retrieved March 12, 2007, at www.foodnews.org/
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29. Berkow SE, Barnard ND. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Status. Nutrition Reviews
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31. Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Turner-McGrevy G, Lanou AJ, Glass J. The effects of a low-fat plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med. 2005;118:991-997.
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33. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-1783.
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Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Animal Agriculture and Public Health – Michael Greger MD - Pages 12-14
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14. Nierenberg, D. (2005) Happier Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry, Worldwatch Paper 171, September, www.worldwatch.org/bookstore/publication/worldwatch-paper-171-happier-meals-rethinking-global-meat-industry
15. Donaldson L. 2009. 150 years of the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer. www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_096231.pdf
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17. Moore, J.E., et al. (2006) 'The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter', Microbes and Infection, vol 8, pp1955-1966
18. Lee, P.J. and Krilov, L.R. (2005) 'When animal viruses attack: SARS and avian influenza', Pediatric Annals 34no 1 pp43-52
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21. Johnson, N.P.A.S. and Mueller, J. (2002) 'Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 'Spanish' influenza pandemic', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol 76, pp105-115
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23. Barry, J.M. (2004) 'Viruses of mass destruction', Fortune, November 1
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27. United Nations (2005) 'UN task forces battle misconceptions of avian flu, mount Indonesian campaign', UN News Centre, October 24, www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=16342&Cr=bird&Cr1=flu
28. Torrey EF and Yolken RH (2005). Beasts of the Earth: Animals, Humans, and Disease, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press
Conclusion - Pages 14-15
1. The NHS Information Centre, Prescribing Support Unit. Prescriptions Dispensed in the Community: England, Statistics for 1999 to 2009. (P. 9 Fig 2) http://www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/prescriptionsdispensed/Prescriptions_Dispensed_1999_2009%20.pdf
2. NHS Information Centre. Prescribing for Diabetes in England: 2004/5 to 2009/10. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/statistics-and-data-collections/primary-care/prescriptions/prescribing-for-diabetes-in-england-2004-05-to-2009-10
3. NHS Information Centre. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2011. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/opad11
4. HM Government. Department of Health. Healthy lives, healthy people: our strategy for public health in England. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_121941
5. Riboli E, Kaaks R. The EPIC Project: rationale and study design. Intl J. Epidem.;26 (Suppl.1):S6-S14. http://epic.iarc.fr/about.php
6. Friel S, Dangour AD, Garnett T, Lock K, Chalabi Z, Roberts I, Butler A, Butler CD, Waage J, McMichael AJ, Haines A. Health and Climate Change 4: Public health benefi ts of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture. Lancet 2009; 374: 2016–25. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61753-0. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)61753-0/fulltext
7. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LSA, Ludwig DS, Barnard ND, Anderson JW. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr September 2003 vol. 78 no. 3 610S-616S. http://www.ajcn.org/content/78/3/610S.short
8. International Association for the Study of Obesity. IOTF briefing paper Obesity in Europe 3. P. 3 (Fig 1) http://www.iaso.org/publications/iotfreports/
9. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization. Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements, 2001. P. 15. http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/Y2809E/y2809e08.htm#bm08
10. UNEP (2010) Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production: Priority Products and Materials, A Report of the Working Group on the Environmental Impacts of Products and Materials to the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management. Hertwich E, van der Voet E, Suh S, Tukker A, Huijbregts M, Kazmierczyk P, Lenzen M, McNeely J, Moriguchi Y. http://www.unep.org/resourcepanel/Publications/PriorityProducts/tabid/56053/Default.aspx
11. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Montréal, 94 pages. http://gbo3.cbd.int/home.aspx
12. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Policy and Action for Cancer Prevention. Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity: a Global Perspective Washington DC: AICR, 2009 http://www.wcrf.org/cancer_research/policy_report/index.php
13. SB 380. Continuing Medical Education, Wright. http://www.sanfrancisco.networkofcare.org/mh/legislate/detail.cfm?bill=SB%20380&sessionid=2011000
14. European Parliament Temporary Committee on Climate Change. 2050, The Future begins today—Recommendations for the EU`s future integrated policy on climate change. April 2009. INI/2008/2105 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/file.jsp?id=5626312
15. Ibid. 10
16. Stehfest, E., L. Bouwman, D. P. Van Vuuren, M. G. J. den Elzen, B. Eickhout and P. Kabat. Climate benefits of changing diet. (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009) http://www.pbl.nl/en/publications/2009/Climate-benefits-of-changing-diet
Note: also this ref for “Furthermore, a 2010 Dutch govt study stated that a shift to a plant-based diet would cut climate mitigation costs 80% by 2050.”
17. ten Brink B, van der Esch S, Kram T, van Oorschot M, Alkemade R, Ahrens R, Bakkenes M, Bakkes J, van den Berg M, Christensen V, Janse J, Jeuken M, Lucas P, Manders T, van Meijl H, Stehfest E, Tabeau A, van Vuuren D, Wilting H. Rethinking Global Biodiversity Strategies: Exploring structural changes in production and consumption to reduce biodiversity loss. (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009) http://www.pbl.nl/en/publications/2010/Rethinking_Global_Biodiversity_Strategies
18. Ibid. 11
19. LaSalle TJ, Hepperly P. Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming. Rodale Institute, 2008. http://www.rodaleinstitute.org/files/Rodale_Research_Paper-07_30_08.pdf
20. Ibid. 16
21. Ibid. 12
Experts Speak on Fast-Acting Solutions to Climate Change
- Dr. Greger speaks about the rise in zoonotic diseases - including swine flu - linked to factory farming.
- Supreme Master Ching Hai discusses the interlinked effects of the global livestock industry on global warming, pollution, economics, health and more.
- Inspirational talk on the human spirit, its ability to change and how to do it now, citing the success of Fry’s