Plant-Based Diets:
A solution to our public health crisis

Plant-Based Diets - A solution to our public health crisis



Introduction - Page 3

1. HM Government. Department of Health. Working Together For a Stronger NHS: Leaflet. 6 April 2011.

2. UK Statistics Authority. Deaths. (Posted 17/02/2011)

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5. Vang A, Singh PN, Lee JW, Haddad EH, Brinegar CH. Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(2):96-104. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

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Facts on Chronic Disease - Page 4

1. Diabetes UK. Diabetes in the UK 2010: Key statistics on diabetes.


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5. Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health: Pregnancy in Women with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in 2002–03, England,Wales and Northern Ireland. London: CEMACH; 2005.


6. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.


7. Ibid. 3, P. 13


8. Kohner et al (1996) Report of the Visual Handicap Group, Diabetic Medicine, 13, (Suppl. 4.) S13-S26


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12. Ibid. 6


13. Vigneri P et al. Diabetes and cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer December 1, 2009 16 1103-1123. doi: 10.1677/ERC-09-0087.


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16. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837-53. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)07019-6


17. OECD (2010), Health at a Glance: Europe 2010, OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/health_glance-2010-en;


18. Morgan E. and Dent M. The economic burden of obesity. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory, 2010.


19. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, et al. Tackling obesities: future choices – project report (2nd Ed). London: Foresight Programme of the Government Office for Science, 2007.


20. The NHS Information Centre, Lifestyles Statistics. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2010.


21. HSE. Obesity among children under 11. London: Department of Health; 2005.


22. Centre for Longitudinal Studies. Millennium Cohort Study Briefing 14: Childhood overweight and obesity (2010)


23. Butland B, Jebb S, Kopelman P, McPherson K, Thomas S, Mardell J, Parry V. Foresight. Tackling obesities: future choices. Project report. Obesity Reviews Volume 8, Issue Supplement s1, pages vi–ix, March 2007.


24. Scarborough P, Bhatnagar P, Wickramsinghe K, Smolina A, Mitchell C, Rayner M (2010). Coronary heart disease statistics 2010, British Heart Foundation: London.


25. Boyle, P., Autier, P., Bartelink, H. (2003) European Code Against Cancer and scientific justification: third version (2003). Ann Oncol (2003) 14 (7): 973-1005. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdg305


26. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010) Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease at the Population Level.


27. SIGN Risk estimation and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a national clinical guideline. (2007)


Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Diabetes - Joel Fuhrman MD - Pages 5-6

1. Khaodhiar, L., S. Cummings, and C.M. Apovian, Treating diabetes and prediabetes by focusing on obesity management. Current diabetes reports, 2009. 9(5): p. 348-54.

2. Riserus, U., W.C. Willett, and F.B. Hu, Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Prog. Lipid Res., 2009. 48(1): p. 44-51.

3. Hermansen, K. and L.S. Mortensen, Bodyweight changes associated with antihyperglycaemic agents in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience, 2007. 30(12): p. 1127-42.

4. Bowker, S.L., S.R. Majumdar, P. Veugelers, et al., Increased cancer-related mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes who use sulfonylureas or insulin: Response to Farooki and Schneider. Diabetes Care, 2006. 29(8): p. 1990-1.

5. Harish, K., M. Dharmalingam, and M. Himanshu, Study Protocol: insulin and its role in cancer. BMC endocrine disorders, 2007. 7: p. 10.

6. Tzoulaki, I., M. Molokhia, V. Curcin, et al., Risk of cardiovascular disease and all cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes prescribed oral antidiabetes drugs: retrospective cohort study using UK general practice research database. BMJ, 2009. 339: p. b4731.

7. Gerstein, H.C., M.E. Miller, R.P. Byington, et al., Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. The New England journal of medicine, 2008. 358(24): p. 2545-59.

8. Carter, P., L.J. Gray, J. Troughton, et al., Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2010. 341: p. c4229.

9. Villegas, R., Y.T. Gao, G. Yang, et al., Legume and soy food intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2008. 87(1): p. 162-7.

10. Jiang, R., J.E. Manson, M.J. Stampfer, et al., Nut and peanut butter consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. JAMA, 2002. 288(20): p. 2554-60.

11. Bazzano, L.A., T.Y. Li, K.J. Joshipura, et al., Intake of Fruit, Vegetables, and Fruit Juices and Risk of Diabetes in Women. Diabetes Care, 2008. 31(7): p. 1311-1317.

12. Jenkins, D.J., C.W. Kendall, A. Marchie, et al., Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2003. 78(3 Suppl): p. 610S-616S.

13. Nicholson, A.S., M. Sklar, N.D. Barnard, et al., Toward improved management of NIDDM: A randomized, controlled, pilot intervention using a lowfat, vegetarian diet. Prev. Med., 1999. 29(2): p. 87-91.

14. Dunaief, D., Y. Gui-shuang, J. Fuhrman, et al., Glycemic and cardiovascular parameters improved in type 2 diabetes with the high nutrient density diet. J. Nutr., 2010. 14(6): p. 500.

15. Jenkins, D.J., C.W. Kendall, D.G. Popovich, et al., Effect of a very-high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut diet on serum lipids and colonic function. Metabolism., 2001. 50(4): p. 494-503.

Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Coronary Disease – Caldwell B Esselstyn MD - Pages 7-9

1. Halsted WS. The results of operations for the cure of cancer of the breast performed at the John Hopkins Hospital from June 1889 to January 1894. Med Classics 1938;3:441–509.

2. McWhirter R. The value of simple mastectomy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer of the breast. Br J Radiol 1948;21:599–610.

3. Hayward J. Conservative surgery in the treatment of early breast cancer. Br J Surg 1974;61:770 –771.

4. Crile G Jr. Results of conservative treatment of breast cancer at ten and 15 years. Ann Surg 1975;181:26 –30.

5. Fisher B, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Bauer M, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Deutsch M, Montague E, Margolese R, Foster R. Ten-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing radical mastectomy and total mastectomy with or without radiation. N Engl J Med 1985;312:674–681.

6. Forrester JS, Shah PK. Lipid lowering versus revascularization: an idea whose time (for testing) has come. Circulation 1997;96:1360–1362.

7. Braunwald E. Shattuck lecture— cardiovascular medicine at the turn of the millennium: triumphs, concerns, and opportunities. N Engl J Med 1997;337:1360 –1369.

8. Enos WF, Holmes RH, Beyer J. Coronary disease among United States soldiers killed in action in Korea; preliminary report. JAMA 1953;152: 1090–1093.

9. McNamara JJ, Molot MA, Stremple JF, Cutting RT. Coronary artery disease in combat casualties in Vietnam. JAMA 1971;216:1185–1187.

10. Strong JP, Malcom GT, McMahan CA, Tracy RE, Newman WP III, Herderick EE, Cornhill JF. Prevalence and extent of atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults: implications for prevention from the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Study. JAMA 1999;281:727–735.

11. Campbell TC, Parpia B, Chen J. Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China study. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82:18T–21T.

12. Sinnett PF, Whyte HM. Epidemiological studies in a total highland population, Tukisenta, New Guinea. Cardiovascular disease and relevant clinical, electrocardiographic, radiological and biochemical findings. J Chronic Dis 1973;26:265–290.

13. Connor WE, Cerqueira MT, Connor RW, Wallace RB, Malinow MR, Casdorph HR. The plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and diet of the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:1131–1142.

14. Strom A, Jensen RA. Mortality from circulatory diseases in Norway 1940–1945. Lancet 1951;1:126 –129.

15. Esselstyn CB Jr, Ellis SG, Medendorp SV, Crowe TD. A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician’s practice. J Fam Pract 1995;41:560 –568.

16. Esselstyn CB Jr. Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology). Am J Cardiol 1999;84:339 –341.

17. Esselstyn CB Jr. Resolving the coronary artery disease epidemic through plant-based nutrition. Prev Cardiol 2001;4:171–177.

18. Esselstyn CB Jr. Prevent and Reverse Heart Disease. New York, New York: Avery, Penguin Group, 2007:308.

19. Allen JA. Heart disease to cost U.S. $503 billion in 2010: group. Available at: Accessed on May 31, 2010.

20. Napoli M. Heart News 2007. Available at: Accessed on May 31, 2010.

21. Hechinger J. The growing case for heart surgery. The Wall Street Journal, May 26, 2005.

Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Cancer – Neal Barnard MD - Pages 10-12

1. From "The Cancer Survivor’s Guide: Foods that Help You Fight Back", 2008, Neal D. Barnard, Jennifer K. Reilly, pg viii.

See also:

Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang- Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K. Mortality. Vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.

Dos Santos Silva I, Mangtani P, McCormack V, Bhakta D, Sevak L, McMichael AJ. Lifelong vegetarianism and risk of breast cancer: a population-based case-control study among South Asian migrant women living in England. Int J Cancer. 2002 May 10;99(2):238-44.

Lippman ME, Bolan G. Oestrogen-responsive human breast cancer in long term tissue culture. Nature 256, 592 - 593 (14 August 1975); doi:10.1038/256592a0.

Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr October 2001 vol. 74 no. 4 549-554.

2. Ibid., p 1.

See also:

Wynder EL, Kajitani T, Kuno J, Lucas JC Jr, DePalo A, Farrow J. A comparison of survival rates between American and Japanese patients with breast cancer. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1963; 117:196-200.

Gersten O, Wilmoth JR. The cancer transition in Japan since 1951. Demograph Res 2002; 7:271–306. DOI: 10.4054/DemRes.2002.7.5

3. Fradet Y, Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R. Dietary fat and prostate cancer progression and survival. Eur Urol. 1999;388:91.

4. Ibid. 1, p. 56

See also:

Fradet Y, Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R. Dietary fat and prostate cancer progression and survival. Eur Urol. 1999;388:91.

Carter JP, Saxe GP, Newbold V, Peres CE, Campeau RJ, Bernal-Green L. Hypothesis: dietary management may improve survival from nutritionally linked cancers based on analysis of representative cases. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:209-226.

Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13:340-345.

5. Ibid. 1, p. 1-2

See also:

Wu AH, Pike MC, Stram DO. Meta-analysis: dietary fat intake, serum estrogen levels, and the risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):529-34.

Miller K. Estrogen and DNA damage: the silent source of breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:100-102.

Yager JD, Davidson NE. Estrogen Carcinogenesis in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med 2006; 354:270-282

6. Miller K. Oestrogen and DNA damage: the silent source of breast cancer? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:100-102

7. Prentice R, Thompson D, Clifford C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, Byar D. Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentration in healthy postmenopausal women. The Women’s Health Trial Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82:129-134

8. Heber D, Ashley JM, Leaf DA, Barnard RJ. Reduction of serum estradiol in postmenopausal women given free access to low-fat high-carbohydrate diet. Nutrition. 1991;7:137-139.

9. Ibid. 1, p 2

See also:

Fisher B, Costantino J, Redmond C, Poisson R, Bowman D, Couture J, Dimitrov NV, Wolmark N, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, et al. A randomized clinical trial evaluating tamoxifen in the treatment of patients with node-negative breast cancer who have estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. N Engl J Med. 1989 Feb 23;320(8):479-84.

Chavarro, Jorge E. MD, ScD1,2; Rich-Edwards, Janet W. MPH, ScD2,3,4; Rosner, Bernard A. PhD2,5; Willett, Walter C. MD, DrPH1,2,4. Diet and Lifestyle in the Prevention of Ovulatory Disorder Infertility. Obstetrics & Gynecology: November 2007 - Volume 110 - Issue 5 - pp 1050-1058 doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000287293.25465.e1

10. Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K. Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. Br Med J. 1994;308:1667-1670

11. Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Eilber U. Mortality patterns of German vegetarians after 11 years of follow-up. Epidemiol. 1992;3:395-401

12. Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mortality among German vegetarians. Int J Epidemiol. 1993;22:228-236.

13. Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, et al. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2005;293:172-182.

14. Freeman BA, Crapo JD. Biology of disease: free radicals and tissue injury. Lab Invest.     1982 Nov;47(5):412-26.

15. Ibid. 1, p. 30

See also:

Bendich A. Carotenoids and the immune response. J Nut. 1989;119:112-115.

Watson RR, Prabhala RH, Plezia PM, Alberts DS. Effect of beta-carotene on lymphocyte subpopulations in elderly humans: evidence for a dose-response relationship. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:90-94.

16. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:391-398.

See also:

Rao AV, Agarwal S. Role of Antioxidant Lycopene in Cancer and Heart Disease. J Am Coll Nutr October 2000 vol. 19 no. 5 563-569

17. Ibid. (16)

18. Ibid. (16)

19. Packer, L. Protective role of vitamin E in biological systems, Am J Clin Nutr April 1991 vol. 53 no. 4 1050S-1055S.

See also:

Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition Volume 18, Issue 10, Pages 872-879 (October 2002)

Ryan-Harshman M, Aldoori W. The relevance of selenium to immunity, cancer, and infectious/inflammatory diseases. Can J Diet Prac Res. 2005;66:98-102.

20. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid (mg) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content.

21. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, et al. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:442-447.

22. Houghton AN. Cancer antigens: immune recognition of self and altered self. J Exp Med. 1994 Jul 1;180(1):1-4.

23. Malter M, Schriever G, Eilber U. Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men. Nutr Cancer. 1989;12:271-278.

24. Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K, Nakagama H, Nagao M. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish. Cancer Sci. 2004 Apr;95(4):290-9.

25. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2010. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 23. Fiber, total dietary (g) Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient

See also:

Williams, CN. High Fibre Diet, The Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol 13, No 6, July/August 1999.

26. Murillo G, Mehta RG. Cruciferous vegetables and cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer. 2001;41:17-28.

See also:

Rock CL, Demark-Wahnefried W. Nutrition and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer: a review of the evidence. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20:3302-3316.

27. Ibid. 1, p. 50

See also:

Polidori MC, Praticó D, Mangialasche F, Mariani E, Aust O, Anlasik T, Mang N, Pientka L, Stahl W, Sies H, Mecocci P, Nelles G. High fruit and vegetable intake is positively correlated with antioxidant status and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(4):921-7.

Ibid. 25

28. Ibid. 1, pp. 64, 78

See also:

Zhao X, Carey EE, Wang, W, Rajashekar, C.B. Does organic production enhance phytochemical content of fruit and vegetables? Current knowledge and prospects for research. HortTechnology 16 (3) 449–456

The Environmental Working Group. Shoppers guide to pesticides in produce. Retrieved March 12, 2007, at

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. 2005. 11th report on carcinogens. Available at

29. Berkow SE, Barnard ND. Vegetarian Diets and Weight Status. Nutrition Reviews

Volume 64, Issue 4, pages 175–188, April 2006

30. Calle EE, Kaaks R. Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms. Nature Reviews Cancer 4, 579-591 (August 2004) doi:10.1038/nrc1408.

See also:

Giovannucci E. Diet, Body Weight, and Colorectal Cancer: A Summary of the  Epidemiologic Evidence. Journal of Women's Health. February 2003, 12(2): 173-182. doi:10.1089/

31. Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Turner-McGrevy G, Lanou AJ, Glass J. The effects of a low-fat plant-based dietary intervention on body weight, metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Am J Med. 2005;118:991-997.

32. Barnard ND, Scialli AR, Hurlock D, Bertron P. Diet and sex-hormone binding globulin, dysmenorrhea, and premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:245-250.

33. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug;29(8):1777-1783.

34. Berkow SE, Barnard N. Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 2006 Apr;64(4):175-188

35. Reddy ST, Wang CY, Sakhaee K, Brinkley L, Pak CY. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone-forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002; 40:265-274.

36. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE. Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake among women. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1664-1672.

Chronic Disease: Cause, Prevention and Cure
Animal Agriculture and Public Health – Michael Greger MD - Pages 12-14

1. Mantovani, A. (2001) 'Notes on the development of the concept of zoonoses', WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre Information Circular 51,

2. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and World Organization for Animal Health (WHO/FAO/OIE) (2004) Report of the WHO/FAO/OIE joint consultation on emerging zoonotic diseases,

3. Smolinksi, M.S., et al. (2003) Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection and Response, Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press

4. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and World Organization for Animal Health (WHO/FAO/OIE) (2004) Report of the WHO/FAO/OIE joint consultation on emerging zoonotic diseases,

5. RaboBank International (2003). 'China's meat industry overview. Food and Agribusiness Research', May.

6. Gosline, A. (2005) 'Mysterious disease outbreak in China baffles WHO',

7. Huang YT, Teng LJ, Ho SW, and Hsueh PR (2005) 'Streptococcus suis infection', Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, vol 38, pp306-313,

8. Altman, L.K. (2005) 'Pig disease in China worries UN', New York Times, 5 August,

9. Nolan, T. (2005) '40 people die from pig-borne bacteria',

10. World Health Organization (2005) 'Streptococcus suis fact sheet',

11. Fritsch, P. (2003) 'Containing the outbreak: scientists search for human hand behind outbreak of jungle virus', Wall Street Journal, 19 June

12. Harcourt BH, Lowe L, Tamin A, Liu X, Bankamp B, Bowden N, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Ksiazek TG, Hossain MJ, Gurley ES, Breiman RF, Bellini WJ, Rota PA (2004) 'Genetic characterization of Nipah virus, Bangladesh, 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention', Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol 11, no 10).,

13. U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (2006) Malaysia. CIA World Fact Book. 29 March,

14. Nierenberg, D. (2005) Happier Meals: Rethinking the Global Meat Industry, Worldwatch Paper 171, September,

15. Donaldson L. 2009. 150 years of the Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer.

16. Tollefson, L., et al. (1999) 'Public health aspects of antibiotic resistance monitoring in the USA', ACTA Veterinaria Scandinavica Supplemen, vol 92, pp67-75

17. Moore, J.E., et al. (2006) 'The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter', Microbes and Infection, vol 8, pp1955-1966

18. Lee, P.J. and Krilov, L.R. (2005) 'When animal viruses attack: SARS and avian influenza', Pediatric Annals 34no 1 pp43-52

19. Davies, P. (1999) 'The plague in waiting', Guardian, 7 August,

20. Taylor, M. (2005) 'Is there a plague on the way?', Farm Journal, 10 March 10,

21. Johnson, N.P.A.S. and Mueller, J. (2002) 'Updating the accounts: global mortality of the 1918-1920 'Spanish' influenza pandemic', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol 76, pp105-115

22. Belshe, R.B. (2005) 'The origins of pandemic influenza—lessons from the 1918 virus', New England Journal of Medicine, vol 353, no 21, pp2209-2211

23. Barry, J.M. (2004) 'Viruses of mass destruction', Fortune, November 1

24. Frist, B. (2005) 'Manhattan project for the 21st Century', Harvard Medical School Health Care Policy Seidman Lecture, June 1,

25. World Health Organization (2009) 'Cumulative number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A/(H5N1)', 8 April

26. Council on Foreign Relations (2005) 'Session 1: Avian flu—where do we stand?', Conference on the Global Threat of Pandemic Influenza, 16 November,

27. United Nations (2005) 'UN task forces battle misconceptions of avian flu, mount Indonesian campaign', UN News Centre, October 24,

28. Torrey EF and Yolken RH (2005). Beasts of the Earth: Animals, Humans, and Disease, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press

Conclusion - Pages 14-15

1. The NHS Information Centre, Prescribing Support Unit. Prescriptions Dispensed in the Community: England, Statistics for 1999 to 2009. (P. 9 Fig 2)


2. NHS Information Centre. Prescribing for Diabetes in England: 2004/5 to 2009/10.


3. NHS Information Centre. Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2011.


4. HM Government. Department of Health. Healthy lives, healthy people: our strategy for public health in England.


5. Riboli E, Kaaks R. The EPIC Project: rationale and study design. Intl J. Epidem.;26 (Suppl.1):S6-S14.


6. Friel S, Dangour AD, Garnett T, Lock K, Chalabi Z, Roberts I, Butler A, Butler CD, Waage J, McMichael AJ, Haines A. Health and Climate Change 4: Public health benefi ts of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: food and agriculture. Lancet 2009; 374: 2016–25. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61753-0.


7. Jenkins DJA, Kendall CWC, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Augustin LSA, Ludwig DS, Barnard ND, Anderson JW. Type 2 diabetes and the vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr September 2003 vol. 78 no. 3 610S-616S.


8. International Association for the Study of Obesity. IOTF briefing paper Obesity in Europe 3. P. 3 (Fig 1)


9. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization. Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements, 2001. P. 15.


10. UNEP (2010) Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production: Priority Products and Materials, A Report of the Working Group on the Environmental Impacts of Products and Materials to the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management. Hertwich E, van der Voet E, Suh S, Tukker A, Huijbregts M, Kazmierczyk P, Lenzen M, McNeely J, Moriguchi Y.


11. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Montréal, 94 pages.


12. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Policy and Action for Cancer Prevention. Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity: a Global Perspective Washington DC: AICR, 2009


13. SB 380. Continuing Medical Education, Wright.


14. European Parliament Temporary Committee on Climate Change. 2050, The Future begins today—Recommendations for the EU`s future integrated policy on climate change. April 2009. INI/2008/2105


15. Ibid. 10


16. Stehfest, E., L. Bouwman, D. P. Van Vuuren, M. G. J. den Elzen, B. Eickhout and P. Kabat. Climate benefits of changing diet. (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009)

Note: also this ref for “Furthermore, a 2010 Dutch govt study stated that a shift to a plant-based diet would cut climate mitigation costs 80% by 2050.”


17. ten Brink B, van der Esch S, Kram T, van Oorschot M, Alkemade R, Ahrens R, Bakkenes M, Bakkes J, van den Berg M, Christensen V, Janse J, Jeuken M, Lucas P, Manders T, van Meijl H, Stehfest E, Tabeau A, van Vuuren D, Wilting H. Rethinking Global Biodiversity Strategies: Exploring structural changes in production and consumption to reduce biodiversity loss. (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), 2009)


18. Ibid. 11


19. LaSalle TJ, Hepperly P. Regenerative Organic Farming: A Solution to Global Warming. Rodale Institute, 2008.


20. Ibid. 16


21. Ibid. 12

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